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Coriún Aharonián: Technology for the Resistance:

Notes

[1] Coriún Aharonián: "Boom-tac, boom-tac". In: Marcha, Montevideo, 30-V-1969.

[2] Although I prefer the Spanish word militancia, the English translations militancy or militance usually have a different meaning.

[3] Even with the most clever and attentive popular musicians, the payment of royalties was never more than 50 percent of the actual sold copies.

[4] Daniel Viglietti (composer and popular singer), the members of the Los Olimareños duet José Luis (Pepe) Guerra and Braulio López, and the author of this paper (composer of art music and musicologist).

[5] Myriam Dibarboure (actress), María Teresa Sande (pianist), Edgardo Bello (notary) and Dahd Sfeir (actress).

[6] Uruguay had had an experience of a journal with these characteristics, Época, between 1962 and 1967. Some of the founders of Ediciones Tacuabé participated in that experience "sin partido y sin dueño".

[7] Financial support was received only on three opportunities: once in the 1970s, from a group of Uruguayan residents in Argentina; and twice in the 1980s, from the NOVIB, a Netherlands-based funding institution. During the 1980s and the 1990s, two big concerts with an enormous number of enthusiastic popular musicians helped a little bit to overcome a couple of difficult moments.

[8] Among the people who worked in Ediciones Tacuabé mention must be done of Jorge Bonaldi, Luis Trochón, Jorge Galemire, Francisco Rey and Guilherme Pinto (popular musicians), Fernando Condon and Graciela Paraskevaídis (art music composers), Juan Graña (actor), Mirtha Ducret (economist), and especially of Carlos da Silveira (art music composer and popular musician), Rubén Olivera (popular musician) and Elena Silveira (teacher), who worked hard for many years.

[9] Mauricio Ubal (musician) since 1984, and the author of this paper from 1971 to 1984.

[10] Uruguay has only 3 million inhabitants (3.400.000 estimated in 2004).

[11] Uruguay had had during the 1950s and 1960s a pioneering design experience, the Equipo As, based on the imagination applied to very poor printing installations. In its first decade, Ediciones Tacuabé worked with a design and printing team coming from that experience. The logos were designed by Áyax Barnes, the design director was for years Nicolás Loureiro, and the list of artists involved in cover design included Hermenegildo Sábat, Manuel Espínola Gómez, Domingo Ferreira, Carlos Pieri, Enrique Badaró, Hugo Alíes, Gustavo Wojciechowski, Aldo Podestá, Mario Marotta, and Alfredo Testoni. The painter Hilda López (author of some covers herself) curated in 1986 an exhibition of covers at the art gallery of Cinemateca Uruguaya.

[12] Other important centres of cultural fighting were the Cinemateca Uruguaya, the independent theatrical movement, a couple of book publishers, and also institutions like those devoted to contemporary art music. The most important was the new popular music movement, which we will address in this paper.

[13] Among the links established in the 1970s, Ediciones Tacuabé had contracts with Le Chant du Monde in France, I Dischi del Sole in Italy, Edigsa in Spain, La Peña de los Parra in Chile, a label of short existence in the Netherlands, several Argentinean small labels, and since its very beginning had links with Egrem in Cuba, duly kept in secret.

[14] In 1973, the Uruguayan Communist Party decided to establish a competitive label, led by party functionaries. Its life was short (partly because of the explicit relationship, which helped the dictatorship to put their authorities into prison) and, as usual, the label ended eaten up by commercial companies. In the meantime, the secretary general of the Uruguayan Party tried to influence some associate labels from other countries. Le Chant du Monde, related with the French Communist Party, rejected his authoritarian request and chose to continue its relationship with Tacuabé. On the contrary, Alerce, related in turn with the Chilean Communist Party, refused for years every possibility of collaboration. After the dictatorship, several political groups and individuals decided to have their own discographic venture, thus blocking partially the sphere of activity that Ediciones Tacuabé had obtained with its work for almost fifteen years. All of these small labels died very quickly.

[15] Founded and owned by the musician and musical educator María Teresa Corral.

[16] The Brazilian team included José Maria Neves, Conrado Silva, Anna Maria Kieffer, Maria Stella Neves Valle, Anna Maria N. L. Parsons, John Francis Parsons and Hans-Joachim Koellreutter.

[17] Héctor Tosar at the beginning and many others later. The list of Uruguayan contemporary composers published by Tacuabé comprises, through its thirty years, León Biriotti, Jorge Camiruaga, Luis Campodónico, Álvaro Carlevaro, Fernando Condon, Eduardo Fernández, Ulises Ferretti, Juan José Iturriberry, Luis Jure, Esteban Klísich, Diego Legrand, Carlos Levín, Daniel Maggiolo, Mauricio Maidanik, Miguel Marozzi, Ariel Martínez, Leo Maslíah, Álvaro Méndez, Graciela Paraskevaídis, Carlos Pellegrino, Renée Pietrafesa, Elbio Rodríguez Barilari, Conrado Silva, Carlos da Silveira, Felipe Silveira, Silvia Suárez, Ernesto Tarduña, and the author of this paper.

[18] An eight-volume series, which includes compositions by Oscar Bazán, Eduardo Bértola, César Bolaños, Leo Brouwer, Vania Dantas Leite, Hilda Dianda, Mariano Etkin, Gerardo Gandini, Celso Garrido-Lecca, Eduardo Kusnir, Mario Lavista, Gilberto Mendes, Emilio Mendoza, José Maria Neves, Jacqueline Nova, Joaquín Orellana, Cergio Prudencio, and some Uruguayans listed in footnote 15 (Juan José Iturriberry, Ariel Martínez, Graciela Paraskevaídis, Conrado Silva, Carlos da Silveira, Héctor Tosar again, and the author of this paper). Out of this series, through other volumes, compositions by Latin American composers, mainly of older generations are also published: Julián Aguirre, Pedro Humberto Allende, Agustín Barrios Mangoré, Eduardo Caba, Alberto Ginastera, Carlos Guastavino, Oscar Lorenzo Fernândez, Heitor Villa-Lobos, and others, and the Uruguayans Alfonso Broqua, Abel Carlevaro, Luis Cluzeau-Mortet, Carlos Estrada, and Eduardo Fabini.

[19] César Amaro, Hugo Balzo, Luis Batlle-Ibáñez, Abel Carlevaro, Lyda Indart, Nibya Mariño, Jorge Oraisón, Renée Pietrafesa, Héctor Tosar, and Eva Vicens. Some other volumes present Argentinean performers, like the Islas guitar duet.

[20] Recorded live in São João del-Rei, state of Minas Gerais, with the ensembles Lira Sanjoanense and Orquestra Ribeiro Bastos. This was the first of a series of similar volumes published later in Brazil by Tacape.

[21] Played by the Studio der frühen Musik München (published since 1973).

[22] By the Uruguayan duet Los Olimareños (with 7,500 copies sold in spite of the dictatorship from June 1971 to June 1973), by the Mexican protest songwriter Judith Reyes.

[23] Apparently the first issued in the world, in July 1971. Irwin Silber and Barbara Dane were publishing the same year in United States under Paredon Records a different volume, under the same title "¡Cuba va!".

[24] The already mentioned Paco Ibáñez in several volumes, Raimón in two volumes, the Cuban symbol Joseíto Fernández, the Chileans Payo Grondona and Ángel Parra among others, as well as early recordings of Los Olimareños.

[25] Agustín Carlevaro, Luis Pasquet, Becho Eizmendi, Juan Cedrón together with the poet Juan Gelman, and Susana Rinaldi. Later on, other names will be added: Fernando Goicoechea, Elsa Morán, Malena Muyala, Numen Vilariño.

[26] A "double" of Indigenous music from Bolivia (460 copies sold).

[27] Milton Schinca, Sarandy Cabrera, Amanda Berenguer. Later, this list is increased with Mario Benedetti, Marosa Di Giorgio, Circe Maia, the group Ediciones de Uno, and the Argentinean Juan Gelman.

[28] Horacio Quiroga, Mario Benedetti, and also documents from Wimpi, an important humorist of the past. The stories for children were written by Juan Capagorry. Later, the list is extended with Francisco Espínola and Eduardo Galeano, and the humorist Juceca.

[29] Los Van Van in 1975 and Los Caneyes in 1977. The list is extended in the late 1980s with the historical Enrique Jorrín, and other Cuban musicians.

[30] Los Vidalín, Ruben Rada, Dino, and Pippo Spera.

[31] First Carlos Canzani and Los Eduardos, and then Jaime Roos, the group Los que iban cantando and its members Jorge Bonaldi, Jorge Lazaroff and Luis Trochón, Leo Maslíah, Rubén Olivera, the trio Montresvideo, the ensemble Rumbo, Jorge Galemire, the trio Travesía and others.

[32] From Argentinean (María Teresa Corral, Judith Akoschky, the group Las Musinas, conducted by Violeta Hemsy de Gainza) and Uruguayan educators (Susana Bosch, Julio Brum, Nancy Gúguich, Pegui) to popular musicians (Jorge Bonaldi, Martín Buscaglia, Mariana Ingold and Osvaldo Fattoruso, and Luis Trochón).

[33] José Antonio Labordeta from Spain, the ensemble Cutumay Camones from El Salvador, and the Cubans, Emiliano Salvador and Vicente Feliú.

[34] In two volumes.

[35] The complete recordings done in the 1950s in Paris for Le Chant du Monde, found in 1974 by Mme Loreilhe and the author of this paper.

[36] And recordings of the most important of these troubadours of the Río de la Plata region, the Uruguayan Carlos Molina (1927-1998).

[37] Daniel Viglietti being the first. Also Henry Engler, Anselmo Grau, Pepe Guerra, Braulio López, Numa Moraes, and Marcos Velásquez.

[38] Eduardo Mateo being the first. Also Urbano Moraes, Lágrima Ríos and the Larbanois-Carrero duet.

[39] Fernando Cabrera, Mauricio Ubal, and Mariana Ingold, who were members of ensembles until then, are perhaps the principal personalities of this new period. Among several other remarkable popular composer-performers, mention must be done of Wálter Bordoni, Jorge Drexler, Esteban Klísich, Guillermo Lamolle, Samantha Navarro, Gastón Rodríguez, Jorge Schellemberg, Leonardo Silva, Tunda Prada, Fernando Ulivi, Alberto Wolff, and the Asamblea Ordinaria, El Cabra Quinteto and Los Aparceros ensembles. There are many phonograms with instrumental popular music, like Sergio Fernández, Popo Romano, or the ensembles Ladyjones and Tribu Mandril, as well as with musicians more strongly linked with rock, like Cuarteto de Nos, Exilio Psíquico, Alejandro Ferradás, Malos Muchachos, La Tabaré Riverock Banda, or La Trampa. Recordings from carnival ensembles include Los Buby's, and the murgas Contrafarsa, Curtidores de Hongos, and La Gran 7.

[40] In the case of Uruguay, this change of strategy has meant a real disaster: the major national group, which represented most of those transnationals, was destroyed from one day to the other (between October 1996 and June 1997), and the very rich archives of Uruguayan artists were transferred to EMI, which announced that the major part of it would not be re-published since it had no commercial value (from EMI's point of view). The whole building of the record market suffered a shock, added to the enormous chaos already produced by the neo-imperialist era of so-called "globalization".

[41] In November 2000 the first shop for direct sale to the public was opened at the entrance of the El Galpón independent theatre.

[42] A macro-concert at the principal theatre of Montevideo honoured the twenty-fifth anniversary of Ediciones Tacuabé in 1996 with the participation of an endless series of musicians and writers.

[43] As studied by Roger Wallis and Krister Malm.

 
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